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Blog | published: 2017-05-16
Why Mongolia and China countries do not get along as a single country is their culture, the way they lead their lifestyle and their mindsets that share very little in common leaving the Great Wall as a token of the fine line between them. The Mongolian Empire after Genghis separated into four major khanates, and Yuan was one of it. King Khublai adapted the Chinese bureaucratic system and reserved Chinese culture throughout the dynasty while using Chinese scholars for most of the governmental positions, and this is why Yuan is considered a Chinese dynasty ran by Mongolian nobles and royalties, instead of another traditional Mongolian-nomadic khanate. China is more like a civilization entity rather than a state or a nation, since the history of China is written by different cultural and ethnicity groups competing for the throne. If you mean why Mongolia is not part of China while during the Yuan dynasty (1271 - 1368) these two countries were belong to one dynasty, then it will become another long story (Yuan dynasty, Red Turban Rebellion). Long story short, the Chinese did not liked their Mongolian lords, just as the Mongols did not like their Manchu lords during the Qing dynasty and declared their independence by taking advantage of the situation. Yuang dynasty was one of Mongol dynasty, Khublai khaan established Yuang dynasty after conquering chinese sung, korea and Vietnam by 1280. That time Mongol empire was including russia and middle east and it is considered largest land continues empire in history. After collapse of Yuang dynasty in 1380 chinese people re-established their own dynasty which is Ming. There were lot of war between Ming and Mongols. They couldn't conquer Mongols, but Mongols won the war several times. If you mean why Mongolia is not part of China while it was during Qing dynasty (1691 - 1911)? However, no one mentioned that these two countries were different during most of the time of their history. Even during the Qing dynasty Mongolia's relation with the dynasty was somewhat exceptional. Especially Outer-Mongolia (today's Mongolia) managed to keep its autonomy (banning Han Chinese people from going to Outer Mongolia etc. ). Some people even argue that the relation with Outer Mongolia with Qing was very much like vassals. This is the reason why the culture of these two countries are still very different from each other. 500.000 chinese were fighting againts 20.000 Mongols, it indicates Mongols are born warriors. But after Mongols became weak due to civil war, Manchu people became stronger and conquered China and created Qing dynasty. There was no war between Mongol and Manchu's because Mongols were suffering due to civil war between Khalha Mongols and Oirat Mongols. So, Khalha Mongols just followed Qing empire and became Vassal country of Qing in order to save them from Oirat Mongols. Manchu people were different than Chinese, they had different language, different face and DNA. Manchu is one of nomadic tribe, who were living as neighboring to Mongols. But after they created Qinq empire they just began to assimilate with Chinese. So, Qing dynasty was not Chinese dynasty! Mongols never conquered by China but they conquered china during Kublai khaan who is grandson of Great Chinggis Khaan. In 1911 Mongols declared independence from Qing dynasty / from Manchu's/ and China had declared their independence in 1912 which is after Mongol. Since then there were some struggle between Mongol and China, because Ar Mongols / current Mongol/ tried to take Southern Mongols and unite them as one part of Mongol. There were some little wars. But Mongols couldn't seperate Southern Mongols from China due to lack of power and Russian pressure. After Mao and the communist party reunited China, he compromised with the Soviet Union because he wanted a buffer zone between China and Russia considering the complicated cold war situation. That is why southern Mongol became one part of China. China is now in struggle due to Tibet and Uigur people. If Southern Mongols begin to fight for Independence, then China will just disintegrate near future. In 1912—Outer Mongolia – Present Mongolia declared independence. But Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia did not. Why? This changed in 1917, when the Bolshevik Revolution destroyed Russia from within and communists revolutionaries threatened to invade Outer Mongolia. The ROC used this pretext to abolish autonomy and place Outer Mongolia under central rule. In 1921, remnants of Imperial Russia invaded Outer Mongolia and expelled the Chinese forces. The theocracy (based on Tibetan Buddhism, i think) was re-established — these were the ones who declared independence in 1912 in the first place. From this point on, Outer Mongolia ceased to ever become a part of China. In 1924, the USSR invaded Outer Mongolia, on the pretext of eliminating the Imperial Russians. The theocracy was overthrown and the communist People's Republic of Mongolia was established. At this point, the Mongolian territory of Tagnu Uriankhai was also removed from Outer Mongolia and granted independence. The next two decades saw Stalinist purges sweep through the USSR and into Mongolia. Tagnu Uriankhai was formally annexed as an oblast (county subdivision) in Russia (constituent state of the USSR). The Republic of China became a rump state in Taiwan and some Fukien islands, but its sovereign claims from 1912 (including Tagnu Urkiankhai besides Outer Mongolia) were enshrined in their constitution. Its own communist insurgency completely took the Mainland of China, minus Outer Mongolia and some Fukien islands, and established People's Republic of China. Since the PRC owed its very existence to the USSR, accepting Mongolia's independence was a no-brainer. Since the ROC is basically Taiwan, nobody cares about 1912 borders.* That's why Mongolia is not part of China today. Mongolia was often jokingly called the 16th Republic (of the USSR), but it wasn't far from the truth. Foreign policy mirrored "Big Brother" and Soviet/Russian troops were stationed in the Mongolia People's Republic until 1992. Stalin played hardball in negotiations just before the end of WWII. Chiang and other Chinese were reluctant but America would not (and probably could not) demand Stalin accept the Chinese claim, so they reluctantly accepted conceding Mongolia while achieving return of Manchuria and Xinjiang. The Mongolian Republic established itself with Soviet support during China's period of weakness, 1912 to 1949. Chiang Kai-shek accepted this after World War 2nd as part of an overall deal with the Soviet Union, which included acceptance of Xinjiang as part of China. Chiang later renaged on the deal, with Mongolia kept out of the United Nations for some time by the exiled government on Taiwan, which kept China's UN seat and veto power until Nixon made his deal with Beijing in the early 1970s. But Mao had also included recognition of Mongolian independence in his own agreements with the Soviet Union.